It is important to read the first two history articles to understand the world situation in the 20th century. The Annamese civilization is very ancient with many dynasties interspersed with periods of Chinese dominance.
After Nguyễn Ánh established the Nguyễn dynasty in 1802, Jesuit missionaries introduced Catholicism and French Europeans in his court as advisors. His successors were more conservative Confucians and resisted Westernization.
The next Nguyễn emperors, Minh Mạng, Thiệu Trị, and Tự Đức brutally suppressed Catholicism and pursued a ‘closed door’ policy, perceiving the Jesuits as a threat, following events such as the Lê Văn Khôi revolt when a French missionary, Fr. Joseph Marchand, encouraged local Catholics to revolt in an attempt to install a Catholic emperor; Catholics, both Vietnamese and foreign-born, were persecuted in retaliation.
Trade with the West slowed during this period. There were frequent uprisings against the Nguyễns, with hundreds of such events being recorded in the annals. These acts were soon being used as excuses for France to invade Vietnam.
Under the orders of Napoleon III of France, Rigault de Genouilly‘s gunships attacked the port of Đà Nẵng in 1858, causing significant damage, yet failed to make progress and decided to sail south and captured the poorly defended city of Gia Định (present-day [Sai Gon] Ho Chi Minh City).
From 1859 to 1867, French troops expanded their control over all six provinces in the Mekong delta and formed a colony known as Cochinchina which eventually became South Viet Nam.
From that point Jesuit missionaries flooded the French South Vietnam colony of Cochinchina teaching French, Catholicism and French culture. To get ahead one must go to the Jesuit school and learn French and over time an elite of about 10% arose in South Vietnam to dominate the 90^ Buddhist population.
French troops later landed in northern Vietnam (which they called Tonkin) and captured Hà Nội twice in 1873 and 1882. The Jesuits made little progress in the north due to a strong resistance to foreigners inherited from the Nguyen dynasty which had been based in Hanoi.
French did manage to keep their grip on Tonkin [North Vietnam] through heavy military force, although twice, their top commanders Francis Garnier and Henri Rivière, were ambushed and killed fighting pirates of the Black Flag Army hired by the mandarins. France assumed control over the whole of Vietnam after the Tonkin Campaign (1883–1886).
French Indochina was formed in October 1887 by incorporating Annam (Trung Kỳ, central Vietnam), Tonkin (Bắc Kỳ, northern Vietnam) and Cochinchina (Nam Kỳ, southern Vietnam, and Cambodia, with Laos added in 1893).
Within French Indochina, Cochinchina [South Vietnam] had the status of a colony, Annam [Central Vietnam] was nominally a French protectorate, and Tonkin [North Vietnam] had a French governor with local governments run by Vietnamese officials.
In 1911, Nguyễn Ái Quốc [Ho Chi Minh] then a law student in Paris participated in founding the French Communist Party and in 1924 traveled to the Soviet Union to join the Comintern.
Through the late 1920s, he helped to build the party and political resist French colonialism in Viet Nam. During the 1930s, the CPV was nearly wiped out under French suppression with the execution of top leaders such as Phú, Lê Hồng Phong, and Nguyễn Văn Cừ.
In 1941 the United States reached out to Nguyễn Ái Quốc, now known as Hồ Chí Minh, and doctored him back to health when he was found dying of fever in a jungle hideout.
The United States offered him support and a guarantee of Vietnamese independence if he would fight the Japanese. Minh agreed and formed the Việt Minh Front to unite the people in resistance to the Japanese, in a national Vietnamese independence movement backed by the United States.
The US built up a Việt Minh armed force, and the Viet Minh worked with the American Office of Strategic Services to collect intelligence on the Japanese.
News media in America feted Ho Chi Minh as the George Washington, the father of his country and Minh enjoyed strong American support both politically-militarily and in the public opinion.
In September 1945, Hồ Chí Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) and was elected to the position of chairman (Chủ Tịch).
In 1945 Nationalist Chinese and British forces were deployed to Vietnam to organize the rapid orderly evacuation of the Japanese.
In 1946, Vietnam had its first National Assembly election [won by the Viet Minh over rival parties in the two French colonies of central and northern Vietnam, but the colony of South Vietnam (Cochinchina) did not join in], which drafted the first constitution.
Then America airlifted a French army back into Vietnam to replace the departing British and Chinese Nationalists with the understanding that the French would prepare the Vietnamese for independence.
Full-scale war broke out between the Việt Minh and France in late 1946 and the First Indochina War officially began. France tried to counter the Viet Minh and Vietnamese independence by bringing back the disgraced former emperor Bảo Đại.
A Provisional Central Government was formed in 1948, reuniting Annam and Tonkin under the French controlled Bao Dai, but the complete reunification of Vietnam was delayed for a year because of the problems posed by a separate administration in Cochinchina [South Vietnam].
In 1954 France was finally persuaded to relinquish its colonies in Indochina when Viet Minh forces defeated the French at Dien Bien Phu. The French had requested US air support which was denied and the French army was defeated.
The 1954 Geneva Conference left Vietnam a divided nation, with Hồ Chí Minh‘s Democratic Republic of Vietnam, government ruling the North from Hanoi; and the staunchly Catholic Ngô Đình Diệm‘s Republic of Vietnam, supported by the United States, ruling the South from Saigon.
The United States quickly sent advisers and aid to the Catholic minority regime in South Vietnam, but the Diem regime was openly bullying the 90% Buddhist majority.
The Financial, Military, Industrial, Establishment intervenes
The Establishment, intent on increasing the debt of the federal government as much as possible, must have felt that they had an ideal situation with a Catholic president and a Catholic regime in South Vietnam. A substantial increase in US aid and advisers was recommended, but the Catholic president John Kennedy balked.
The Catholic Diem treated the Buddhist majority very harshly resulting in a number of Buddhist monks setting themselves on fire in protest. This was too much even for president Kennedy and JFK instead of approving a large increase in aid and advisers, ordered US advisers out of Vietnam.
To save their plan for another war intended to dramatically increase the government debt to the privately owned Federal Reserve Bank, steps had to be taken.
Madame Nhu, was the de facto First Lady of South Vietnam from 1955 to 1963 was the wife of Ngô Đình Nhu, who was the brother and chief-advisor to President Ngô Đình Diệm. As Diệm was a lifelong bachelor and because she and her family lived in Independence Palace together with him, she was considered to be the first lady.
In reaction to the Kennedy decision on 2 November 1963, while Madam Nhu was visiting Los Angeles, Diệm and his brother Nhu were assassinated in a coup d’état led by General Dương Văn Minh (Armed Forces Council) with the understanding that the United States would not intervene; meaning that the CIA was behind the coup.
Then on November 22, Kennedy was himself assassinated, having previously refused to approve the CIA invasion of Cuba and now ordering the withdrawal from Vietnam, Kennedy had crossed the Establishment and CIA for the last time.
One of the first acts of the new president Johnson was to rescind the Kennedy withdrawal from Vietnam and order drastically increased aid and US forces to the country.
The American Vietnamese war had begun and would ultimately kill a million people, expose another four million to the debilitating effects of the chemical weapon Dioxin [Agent Orange] and funnel more than one trillion 2018 dollars into the coffers of the private Federal Reserve.
The Elite were still not satisfied; and the War on Poverty, which did not end poverty, the war on drugs which did not reduce drug use and other boondoggles; continued to transfer the wealth of the nation into the hands of the Financial, Military, Industrial Complex.
This process has not slowed in the 21st century and these folks are very close to killing the goose which had laid them so many gold eggs. Today the government is in a hopeless situation being kept afloat economically only by the current international trade arrangement, which requires nearly all international transactions to be carried out in US dollars.
On the last business day of fiscal year 2018, which was Friday, Sept. 28, the total debt of the United States government was $21.516 trillion.
All it would take for the complete and utter economic collapse of the whole dollar debt system is for other nations to abandon today’s dollar based international trade arrangement.
This is going to happen in the very near future, sending the United States and dollar based nations like Canada into catastrophic economic collapse.