The Feast of Trumpets is the new moon of the seventh biblical month and to properly understand this Feast it is necessary to refresh ourselves on the New Moons. This article will cover the new moons and explain the trumpets used in this Festival’s observance.
Saul, David and the New Moon
David said to Jonathan that tomorrow is the new moon which is a Feast of the Lord [for feasting on certain sacrifices] and that he will hide away from Saul today, the next day would be the new moon day and then on the third day Jonathan should bring him news.
How did David know that the new moon would be in another day when first light of the new moon had not yet been observed?
There is no mystery in how Saul, David and Israel knew it was the New Moon (1 Samuel 20:5) during their lives, since before about the eighth century B.C. the moon rode the sky in the precise 30 day cycles of original creation, the new moon would have begun at the end of the 30th day every month.
In the beginning God established the sun, moon and earth in a perfect system of 12 equal 30 day months, constituting one complete 360 day year. The change in the moon’s cycle to an average of twenty-nine and one half days in one month did not take place until about the eighth century B. C.
Originally there were 12 thirty day months in a solar year, which was 360 days long. This changed and later they had to be much more careful about establishing the new moon with actual sightings from Jerusalem, and were forced to begin intercalating an additional month from time to time to keep the months in line with the solar year.
After the change in the months and years in the 8th century B.C. , the Sanhedrin [the 70] set the new moons at Jerusalem by observing the first visible light of each new moon, and also set the new year from Jerusalem by intercalating an extra month as needed to keep Passover in the season of the spring harvest so the Wave Offering beginning the barley harvest could take place during the Feast of Unleavened Bread as God had commanded.
They did not go searching across the nation but set the new year by the barley in the immediate vicinity of Jerusalem where it was to be cut when the nation was gathered at Jerusalem for the Feast.
Early civilizations around the world used calendars with months of 30 days and years of 360 days. These calendars functioned well until sometime in the 8th century BC when suddenly it became necessary to change them. Then most civilizations around the world began to modify their calendars to allow for 5 extra days for the year making the modern year 365 1/4 days long; and a lunar year of 12 full months; a modern lunar year is 354 days (12 months x 29.5 days); with a solar year being 365 1/4 days long.
The number of days in a year change was marked by the second King of Rome, Numa Pompilius, and by his Jewish contemporary, King Hezekiah. Later other civilizations adopted the new 365 day solar year as well. These events are linked by some with the shadow on the sundial going back 10 degrees in the days of Hezekiah.
There was a change in the number of days in a solar year and in the lunar month as well, in about the 8th century B.C.; which then made setting the new moon more difficult and necessitated the intercalation of a 13th month every so often to keep the lunar year in line with the seasons and the solar year. From about the time of Hezekiah and continuing after that through the days of Jesus Christ until the apostate modern Rabbinic Calendar which departs from the scriptures was finalized in 1178 A.D. For more please see the Biblical Calendar studies here.
God Chooses Jerusalem
God gave Moses instructions that once they had entered the land they were to be careful not to sacrifice just anywhere they wanted but were to come before God at the place of his tabernacle or later the temple, to sacrifice and worship.
Deuteronomy 12:5 But unto the place which the Lord your God shall choose out of all your tribes to put his name there, even unto his habitation shall ye seek, and thither thou shalt come.
Later God chose Jerusalem and the temple where the people were to seek him.
2 Chronicles 7:12 And the LORD appeared to Solomon by night, and said unto him, I have heard thy prayer, and have chosen this place to myself for an house of sacrifice.
7:13 If I shut up heaven that there be no rain, or if I command the locusts to devour the land, or if I send pestilence among my people;
7:14 If my people, which are called by my name, shall humble themselves, and pray, and seek my face, and turn from their wicked ways; then will I hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin, and will heal their land.
7:15 Now mine eyes shall be open, and mine ears attent unto the prayer that is made in this place.
7:16 For now have I chosen and sanctified this house, that my name may be there for ever: and mine eyes and mine heart shall be there perpetually.
Micah 4:2 And many nations shall come, and say, Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, and to the house of the God of Jacob; and he will teach us of his ways, and we will walk in his paths: for the law shall go forth of Zion, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem.
God chose Jerusalem as the place to build his Holy Temple where he would dwell among his people. In the very near future, Messiah the Christ is coming and the new Ezekiel Temple will be built and he will rule the world from the new Holy Temple in Jerusalem.
For the past nineteen hundred years observance of the first light new moons from Jerusalem has not been possible, and the Rabbins replaced the Biblical Calendar with what they themselves regard as a temporary expedient until a new Sanhedrin is formed or Messiah comes to restore the Biblical Calendar.
Today we have access to Jerusalem and to sighting the new moon as God has commanded, from the city which will soon be the capital of the whole earth; and Jesus Christ is working to restore the Biblical Calendar of Holy Scripture and focus the eyes of the world on Jerusalem.
Isaiah 66:23 And it shall come to pass, that from one new moon to another, and from one sabbath to another, shall all flesh come to worship before me, saith the LORD.
A History of Today’s Rabbinic Calendar Changes from the Scriptures
From the Metonic Cycle, priestly officials in Babylon gradually developed astronomical rules over time so that a 19-year calendrical cycle was established in the 4th century B.C. for the purposes of aligning the months of the Babylonian lunar calendar (about 354 days) with the solar calendar year (about 365 days). The Babylonian priestly officials concluded that seven out of nineteen years should be leap years containing an extra month.
After Babylon was captured by the Persian king Cyrus the Great in c 539 B.C., priestly officials took over the calendar from the Babylonian astronomers.
The Babylonian Mysteries priestly officials standardized a procedure for the addition or intercalation of months. The procedure was made official in 503 B.C. by Darius I the Great (if not earlier) and contained 7 leap years in a 19-year calendrical cycle. An extra month called “Addaru II” was added in the 3rd, 6th, 8th, 11th, 14th, 17th and 19th years of a 19-year calendrical cycle. This accounted for 6 leap years.
By doing this, the cycle came out even with the solar calendar year, and the first day of the month of Nisanu – New Year’s Day in the calendar – was never far off from the Vernal Equinox (the first day of Spring), resulting in the civil calendar and the seasons never being out of step.
Then Alexander became king of Macedon in 336 B.C. and proceeded to conquer Egypt, Palestine and Babylon; bringing with him Greek culture, while retaining the Babylonian / Medo-Persian priesthood and its calendar system.
In c 70 A.D. the Roman prince Titus put down a rebellion destroying the Temple and the city of Jerusalem and then in c 359 A.D. the Roman emperor Constantius 2 forbade the Sanhedrin calendar committee to meet regarding calendar matters and ordered the Jews to adopt a fixed calendar.
Although it is easy to calculate a calendar based on the first visible light of the moon, Hillel 2 a Hellenic Rabin who had become president of the Seventy [Sanhedrin], presented the Babylonian calendar [with festivals added] based on the darkness of the conjunction in response to the emperor.
At that time most Jews rejected this proposed apostate calendar because it was obviously contrary to scripture. From Hillel 2 the Hellenized calendar largely disappeared until the ninth century A.D.
From at least Moses the calendar used in Israel/Judah was scriptural, beginning months with the first visible light of the new crescent moon.
Later during the days of Hezekiah an additional month was added every two or three years to correct for the new difference between the twelve lunar months and the solar year. When to add a thirteenth month was based on observations of natural agriculture-related events, principally the Wave Offering harvest requirement during the Spring Festivals.
Today’s Rabbinic Calendar went largely unnoticed until it began to gradually develop in theory during the Geonic period [657 to 1034 A.D. see below].
The postponements were added and the principles and rules of today’s modern Rabbinic Calendar were fully codified by Maimonides in the Mishneh Torah in the 12th century [1178 A.D.]. Maimonides’ work also replaced counting “years since the destruction of the Temple” with the modern supposedly creation based Anno Mundi.
Today’s modern Rabbinic Calendar did not exist at the time of Christ and gradually developed from about 750 A.D. through 1178 A.D. The postponements did not exist as at present, until the postponements rules were added in 1178 A.D.
The history of the Scribes from the Ezra restoration is divided into five periods; indicated by the names given to Scribes during successive times:
The Sopherim : lasting from the return from Babylon and ending with the death of Simon the Just, from about 458 to 300 B.C.
The Tanaim (recorders, repeaters, or teachers of the law): in New Testament times.
The Amoraim (Heb. the expounders) “wise men” and “doctors” of the law, who alone constituted the authorized recorders and expositors of the Halachah (220 A.D. to the completion of the Babylonian Talmud, About 500 A.D.)
Deuteronomy 4:1 Now therefore hearken, O Israel, unto the statutes and unto the judgments, which I teach you, for to do them, that ye may live, and go in and possess the land which the Lord God of your fathers giveth you 4:2 Ye shall not add unto the word which I command you, neither shall ye diminish ought from it, that ye may keep the commandments of the Lord your God which I command you.
- The Saboraim (from Hebrew to think or to discern): teachers of the law after the conclusion of the Rabbinic Babylonian Talmud, 500 to 657 A.D., who determined the law from a careful examination of all the considerations urged by the Amoraim in their controversies on divine, legal, and ritual questions contained in the Talmud.
- The Gaonim, the last scribes doctors of the law, from 657 A.D. to 1034 A.D.; When the Rabbins gained full control of Judaism.
The Rabbinic Calendar
- The Rabbins gained control from the Gaonim the last scribes doctors of the law in 1034 A.D and Moses Maimonides was able to fix and cement the unscriptural Rabbinic Calendar as the official calendar of Rabbinic Judaism in 1178 A.D.
- The postponements come from Hellenic reasoning and the logic of Aristotle to make the scriptures of no effect by teaching that men can reason around what God has commanded.
It is not lawful to change a date which God has commanded and set; and if that is indeed lawful then postponing the weekly Sabbath to Sunday is also lawful.
- Hai Gaon (969-1038), the head of the Pumbeditia, Babylonia Jewish academy of learning in the 11th century was the first person to mention that Hillel had formed the modern Hebrew calendar, and this seems to have been a spurious claim to support his own calendar version by saying it had a long history from Hillel II; which Hillel II calendar itself, was only the Babylonian Calendar with an identical cycle of intercalary years to the Babylonian calendar.
- Instead, based on the evidence, it is now widely believed that the arithmetic rules for calculating dates in the modern Jewish calendar were not developed until at least the 7th to 8th centuries by Rabbins in Babylonia. While postponement rules did not exist until finalized by Moses Maimonides in 1178 A.D.
- In addition, it is impossible to apply modern Jewish calendrical rules to Talmudic dates earlier than at least 500 A.D.).
- Although Hillel II is reputed by tradition to have developed the Modern Hebrew Calendar, no mention of this exists in the Talmud, which itself was completed around 500 A.D.
- This Hillel 2 proposed Babylonian calendar system was rejected by most Jews for hundreds of years, during which it further developed with the addition of the anti scriptural postponements, and was finally codified in 1178 A.D. by Moses Maimonides, and from that time this apostate from scripture calendar gradually gained acceptance.
- It is beyond question and there is absolutely no doubt that the Rabbinic Calendar of today was NOT in use during the time of Christ or for over a thousand years thereafter.
Today many Rabbins themselves acknowledge that the present “Jewish” Calendar of Hillel 2 is NOT correct; but they prefer to wait until a new Sanhedrin is set up to make the necessary changes, rather than standing on the Word of God as presented by Moses. Nevertheless: the Israel New Moon Society is practicing for the day when a new Sanhedrin will be established to restore the Biblical calendar, which they believe will be done by Messiah when he comes..
Admissions of all Jewish scholars.
Israel had always used a lunisolar calendar as recorded in scripture since the days of Moses until relatively modern times.
The first commandment Israel received as a nation was the commandment to determine the New Moon. The beginning of Exodus Chapter 12 says “This month (Nissan) is for you the first of months.” The months were originally referred to in the Bible by number rather than name.
Until modern times, the beginning of each lunar month was decided by a minimum of two eyewitnesses testifying to having seen the first light of the new crescent moon. They would calculate when they should begin looking, but it was the actual sighting that was the important thing.
Knowing that the moon’s cycle was created with twelve annual equal 30 day months until about 750 B.C. when something happened to change the moon cycle to 29 and 1/2 days, meaning that no month today can be greater than 30 days. In certain circumstances, for example if a new month is delayed by atmospheric conditions preventing the moon light from being seen, the following month could possible self-correct with a 28 day month.
Each month they counted 26 or so days after the previous new moon sighting, and then began to look for the new moon each evening at sunset.
That is the extent of the calculations before the fifth century A.D. If the light of the moon was not seen at the end of the 29th day then the end of day 30 automatically began the new month since no month can exceed 30 days.
No, calculations were never used to confirm the sightings, since things like weather conditions could refute the calculations. Calculations only indicated when to begin looking!
Nevertheless during the dispersion, calculations of the potential first visible light of the new moon could be and were used by many as the best available means in the circumstances, until the modern Rabbinic Calendar which is based on the darkness of conjunctions [NOT God’s commanded light] finally supplanted the scriptures in 1178 A.D. when Maimonides finalized all of the rules for the modern Jewish Calendar in full.
It is absolutely certain and beyond question [and that is openly admitted by the Rabbins] that the Rabbinic Calendar in use today, IS NOT the calendar used during the life of Jesus Christ, nor was it finally codified until over a thousand years later; and second, the Rabbinic Calendar has nothing to do with the Calendar that the Creator gave His people in the Holy Scriptures.
The Bible tells us to begin and to end a day at sunset; and to count six days and to keep the seventh day as a Sabbath of rest. These are the only calendar instructions that the modern Hellenic Rabbins keep.
The Rabbinic Calendar rejects the Biblical beginning of months with the first LIGHT of the moon as God has instructed (Gen 1:14); in favor of starting a month based on the average time between conjunctions; which is that period of darkness before the light of the sun begins to brighten the moon; and they reject adding intercalary years by the ripening of the harvest, for their artificial insertion of regular intercalary months.
Then they start their year in the fall, when God commands us to start our year in the spring, and they postpone the days God declares holy, to other days for their own convenience.
Anyone who departs from the words of Moses; does not represent Moses, or sit in Moses seat!
The present day Rabbinic Calendar is simply the Babylonian Calendar with High Days and postponement rules added. The Babylonian Calendar with Festivals added [no postponements] proposed by Hillel 2 in c 359 A.D. was largely disregarded.
Then beginning in the early Eighth Century the Rabbins in competition with the Scribes began to gradually develop the modern Rabbinic Calendar until they took the ascendancy over the scribes in 1036, and the modern rules including postponements were developed; and today’s version was finalized in 1178 A.D.
The present Rabbinic calendar was not is use and was not even finalized before 1178 A.D., therefore it was not used during the Temple period nor in the time of Christ.
The New Moons
We are to observe the new moons as sighted from Jerusalem with monthly Bible Studies.
According to Edersheim [Quotes in blue] who wrote over 100 years ago: “Scarcely any other festive season could have left so continuous an impression on the religious life of Israel as the ‘New Moons.’ Recurring at the beginning of every month, and marking the solemn proclamation of the day, by—’It is sanctified,’ was intended to give a hallowed character to each and every month, while the blasting of the priests’ trumpets on every New Moon day and the special sacrifices offered, summoned the people to appear before the Eternal and thus bring themselves into ‘remembrance’ before Him.
The first visible light beginning each month was a time to feast, and to seek religious instruction and edification such as Elisha seems to have held in 2 Kings 4:23
The observance of the first visible light of the new moon was kept throughout the history of Israel [until the modern Rabbins gained control of Judaism and rejected the scriptural calendar LIGHT based New Moons to begin their months with the conjunction of Darkness in 1178 A.D.].
From Moses through the Temple period, month to month the New Moon day began the months with the first visible Light of the New Moon, as an outward ordinance, even in the decay of religious life [Isa 1:13; Hosea 2:11].
The prophecies of Isaiah and Ezekiel proclaim that in the millennial dispensation, the New Moon Trumpet will summon ‘all flesh to worship before God’
Isaiah 66:23 And it shall come to pass, that from one new moon to another, and from one sabbath to another, shall all flesh come to worship before me, saith the LORD.
Ezekiel tells us that the closed eastern gate to the inner court of the new Millennial Temple will be opened on Sabbaths and the New Moons, thus equating the New Moon with the weekly Sabbath as a time of worship. This showing how very important God regards the New Moon first Light observance.
Ezekiel 46:1 Thus saith the Lord GOD; The gate of the inner court that looketh toward the east shall be shut the six working days; but on the sabbath it shall be opened, and in the day of the new moon it shall be opened.
In New Testament times the New Moon was kept by the faithful Christians and expressly characterized as ‘a shadow of things to come; but the body is of Christ.
Let no man therefore judge [Let no man criticize you for eating lawful clean meats (as opposed to vegetarianism) or for drinking wine; or for keeping the New Moons, or for keeping God’s Sabbaths and annual Festivals holy.] you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of an holy day, or of the new moon, or of the Sabbath: which are a shadow of things to come; but the body is of Christ.’ (Colossians 2:16-17).
The new moon along with the Sabbath and Festivals as well as the Passover wine and the eating of those clean meats sanctified by God, is intended to teach us to put a difference between the holy and the profane and they are parts of the whole Word of God: which is Christ.
Meaning that the clean meats and wine (particularly the lamb and wine of Passover and the Feasts), as well as keeping the New Moons and Sabbaths; point to Christ the Creator who made them.
The Determination of the New Moon
The first visible light of the New Moon was observed wherever God dwelled; which was first [from Moses] at the Tabernacle in the wilderness and then at the Tabernacle in Shiloh once they had entered the land; and finally at Jerusalem when God chose Jerusalem to place his name there.
from creation there were always precisely twelve equal 30 day months in a complete 360 day year until the 700’s B.C.
After that time the New Moon Day was always set by observation of the fist visible light of the new moon from Jerusalem. Since the moon’s cycle is no more than 30 days; they would simply count 27 days from the month’s sighting to begin looking for the next New Moon.
Because of the necessity to declare the New Moons as soon as possible after sunset, observers watched for the first visible light of the New Moon from the immediate vicinity of the Temple in Jerusalem. Those who thought they saw the moon’s first light then rushed to give witness to a special committee of the Mosaic 70 [Sanhedrin] established for that purpose; and when two or more credible witness were heard, the committee sanctified the new month. Once the New Month was sanctified signal fires were lit and such signals were then lit across the land when the signal fire from Jerusalem was seen.
They could of course easily calculate the first visible light of the New Moon, but potential issues like possible cloud cover or a short lag time between sunset and moonset made actual sightings highly desirable.
The New Moon is the Head of the Month
The Head of the month, determined by the first visible light of the new moon, is a New Beginning; and a special time to remember the Headship of God over his Creation; we are to observe the first light of the new moon to remember that the Creator is the true HEAD of the Ekklesia and the spiritual LIGHT of God which drives away the darkness of ignorance.
The Moon being new; pictures a New Beginning and a monthly REMINDER to dedicate ourselves to godliness, to particularly repent of sin; and to acknowledge the Authority of God as our Sovereign King and HEAD.
God in his wisdom has given us the weekly Sabbath to worship Him, and he has given us a monthly New Moon time to worship Him, and he has given us His annual Festivals: All for our good, as a help to keep our hearts and minds always on Him!
The Blasting of Trumpets
In the law of God the blasting of the two Silver Trumpets is commanded to call the people to God. The two silver trumpets were also to be sounded over all Sabbath, New Moon and Festival sacrifices offered by the high priest on behalf of the whole people [I.E. the Daily etc]; to call on God to remember the people and accept the sacrifices offered by the high priest on behalf of all the people.
In spiritual New Covenant terms, the two silver trumpets were a figure of calling all people to God the Father through Christ and of calling on God the Father to remember [see] and accept the sacrifice offered by Christ as our spiritual High Priest.
Numbers 10:10 Also in the day of your gladness, and in your solemn days [Sabbaths, Appointed Times and Festivals] , and in the beginnings of your months [New Moons], ye shall blow with the [the two silver] trumpets over your burnt offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace offerings [The special offerings of those days; not the personal offerings made at other times]; that they may be to you for a memorial before your God [To call you to remember and come to God]: I am the LORD your God.
The sounding of the silver trumpets called on God to remember the people and to accept the sacrifices made by the high priest for the whole people; this being a physical type of calling on God to remember the people and the sacrifice of Jesus Christ, offered by the eternal High Priest, for the people!
The Two Silver Trumpets and the Shofar
There are two different kinds of trumpets: First the two silver trumpets to be blasted by the priests calling God to remember the people and calling the people to God [I.E. Reconciling the two] at the place that God has placed his name; and second, the shofar of rejoicing in every community throughout the land.
Leviticus 23:23 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 23:24 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, In the seventh month, in the first day of the month, shall ye have a sabbath, a memorial of blowing of trumpets [Strong’s 8643 Shout for joy, hence the rejoicing of sounding the shofar being added to the silver trumpets], an holy convocation. 23:25 Ye shall do no servile [work of any kind] work therein: but ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD.
Numbers 29:1 And in the seventh month, on the first day of the month, ye shall have an holy convocation; ye shall do no servile work: it is a day of blowing the trumpets [8643 Shout for joy, hence the rejoicing of sounding the shofar being added to the silver trumpets] unto you.
When the temple was destroyed and the two silver trumpets lost; the sounding of the two silver trumpets was lost for a time, but the blasting of the shofars continues.
The sounding of the silver trumpets was a type of calling God to remember the people and of calling the people to remember and come to God.
The Command Concerning the Silver Trumpets
The first section is about the journey in the wilderness, during which the trumpets were used to call the people to meet with Moses [the mediator of the Mosaic Covenant]. This a type of the calling of those in the spiritual wilderness to come to Jesus Christ the Mediator of the new Covenant.
Numbers 10:1-10 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 10:2 Make thee two trumpets of silver; of a whole piece shalt thou make them: that thou mayest use them for the calling of the assembly, and for the journeying of the camps.
10:3 And when they shall blow with them [both], all the assembly shall assemble themselves to thee at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation [to assemble before God].
10:4 And if they blow but with one trumpet, then the princes, which are heads of the thousands of Israel, shall gather themselves unto thee.
10:5 When ye blow an alarm [a special call], then the camps that lie on the east parts shall go forward. 10:6 When ye blow an alarm the second time, then the camps that lie on the south side shall take their journey: they shall blow an alarm for their journeys.
10:7 But when the congregation is to be gathered together, ye shall blow, but ye shall not sound an alarm [a special call to battle].
10:8 And the sons of Aaron, the priests, shall blow with the [silver] trumpets; and they shall be to you for an ordinance for ever throughout your generations.
The spiritually called out are called into the priesthood of Jesus Christ and in the spiritual sense are to be silver trumpets calling the nations to God. Which is the task given to the Ekklesia.
Matthew 28:18 And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. 28:19 Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: 28:20 Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the world. Amen.
The silver trumpets are sounded to call God to remember the people.
10:9 And if ye go to war in your land against the enemy that oppresseth you, then ye shall blow an alarm with the trumpets; and ye shall be remembered before the LORD your God, and ye shall be saved from your enemies.
10:10 Also in the day of your gladness, and in your solemn days, and in the beginnings of your months, ye shall blow with the trumpets over your burnt offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace offerings; that they may be to you for a memorial before your God: I am the LORD your God.
Edersheim: “The object of sounding the silver trumpets is expressly stated to have been ‘for a memorial,’ that they might be remembered by God, specifically that God might remember the people and that the people might be called to come before God; it being specially added: ‘I am the LORD [YHVH] your God.’
At the blast of the priest’s silver trumpets the people were to come before God, acknowledging the Eternal as ‘the LORD their God. In the spiritual New Covenant sense coming before God in sincere repentance to acknowledge the authority of God as their Head, to remember God; that they might be remembered and delivered by God “
Eidersheim: “Every occasion of blowing the silver trumpets, whether at New Moons, at the Feast of Trumpets, at other festivals, on the Sabbaths; or in the Sabbatical year and Year of Jubilee, or in the time of war, was to call upon God to remember and deliver His people; and was a public acknowledgment of the Eternal as sovereign above all else and the true Head of God’s people.”
The New Moon Sacrifices
Besides the blowing of trumpets on every New Moon, certain sacrifices were ordered to be offered on the New Moon (Num 28:11-15).
All sacrifices in the Sacrificial System are lessons and allegories of the atoning sacrifice of Jesus Christ.
The two great aspects of the Law of Offerings were the personal offerings brought by individuals; and the offerings made on behalf of the whole congregation by the high priest.
Edersheim “The sin offering is offered to atone for sin, the bringing of that offering signifying repentance on the part of the individual offerer; while the high priest offered sin offerings on behalf of the whole called out people. The physical sin offering representative of the sacrifice of the Lamb of God, who fully and completely atoned for sincerely repented sin.
The Burnt Offering was entirely consumed by fire on the altar with the smoke rising as a pleasant odor to God the Father.”
The spiritual significance being a life of wholehearted service to God the Father; which is a very pleasant perfume of service to the Father in heaven.
The Burnt Offering is typical of the life of Christ in wholehearted service to God the Father, Jesus giving himself totally in service to God the Father, Which is an example that we are to follow.
The New Moon day Burnt Offerings, consisted of bullocks which are typical of strong patient service bringing forth much increase. The bullock or ox pictures the strong patient labor of Jesus Christ which brings forth much increase in bringing in the fruits of humanity into the family of God.
Proverbs 14:4 Where no oxen are, the crib is clean: but much increase is by the strength of the ox.
The ram pictures Jesus Christ as the HEAD of the flock of God; and the spotless lambs picture meekness and humility before God and a total complete innocence of any guile or sin.
Numbers 28:11 And in the beginnings of your months [on the New Moons] ye shall offer a burnt offering unto the LORD; two young bullocks, and one ram, seven lambs of the first year without spot; 28:12 And three tenth deals of flour for a meat offering, mingled with oil, for one bullock; and two tenth deals of flour for a meat offering, mingled with oil, for one ram;
The grain [unleavened bread] offering pictures Jesus Christ as the Bread of Life, and the wine offering pictures the shed blood of Christ. These two being explained by Christ at his last Passover in the flesh.
28:13 And a several tenth deal of flour mingled with oil for a meat [grain] offering unto one [each] lamb; for a burnt offering of a sweet savour, a sacrifice made by fire unto the LORD.
28:14 And their drink offerings shall be half an hin of wine unto a bullock, and the third part of an hin unto a ram, and a fourth part of an hin unto a lamb: this is the burnt offering of every month throughout the months of the year.
The Passover offering by every individual applied to the called out of Egypt [an analogy of the spiritual first fruits] and may be a lamb or a goat kid: yet here at the beginning of every month, as at the Fast of Atonement, a kid of the goats is specifically commanded as a sin offering by the high priest for the whole people.
28:15 And one kid of the goats for a sin offering unto the LORD shall be offered, beside the continual burnt offering, and his drink offering.
When we say the words “the Lamb of God” it is very important that we understand what is meant by the application of the term lamb to Jesus Christ. Lamb means far more than some helpless creature; it means absolute pure innocence and guiltlessness of any sin.
All these sacrifices picture Jesus Christ in his service to God the Father, for the people; and are also an example that we should follow, purifying ourselves from all guile and sin and serving God the Father in Christ-like wholehearted zeal.
We are commanded to sanctify every month by these sacrifices; and in spiritual New Covenant terms, we are to sanctify each new month with a worship service [Bible Study], acknowledging that the Creator has made all things and that he alone is the personal Head of every called out individual. and we are to remember the wholehearted service of Christ to God the Father to save humanity from bondage to sin and eternal death.
Edershiem: “These special New Moon sacrifices most appropriately mark ‘the beginnings of months’ (Num 28:11). It is a universal principle, that ‘the first’ always stands for the whole— And so the burnt-offerings and the sin-offerings at ‘the beginning’ of each month consecrated or sanctified [set apart and dedicated to God] the entire month.”
Brethren, by starting our months by the biblical first visible Light of the New Moon as the Creator commanded us in Genesis 1 and sanctifying what God has created and by coming before God with a Bible Study: We are obeying God, acknowledging God as Creator of all things, and dedicating ourselves to godliness during the coming month.
The weekly Sabbath is a time to dedicate ourselves to God and acknowledge His sovereignty as Creator; and the New Moons are a consecration of the month to God and a monthly re-dedication of ourselves to our Mighty God!
The Order of Service on New Moon Days
The evening before an expected new moon sighting a special committee of the 70, established as New Moon experts, examined witnesses in the early evening soon after sunset to determine the appearance of the new moon.
As soon as the required number [two or more] of credible witness were proven, the proclamation of the Council “It is sanctified!” consecrated the month and New Moon day.
The council did not establish or set the New Moon day; they proclaimed what God had done and which had been seen by witnesses. They took no decision upon themselves they merely authenticated the two or more witnesses on behalf of the whole nation.
Immediately afterwards, the priests blew the silver trumpets which marked the monthly New Moon Feast; and the watchers were rewarded with a meal.
Then in the morning after the morning daily sacrifice, the prescribed New Moon offerings were brought, the blood of the burnt-offerings being thrown round the base of the altar below the red line, and the rest poured out into the channel at the south side of the altar; while the blood of the sin-offering was sprinkled or dropped from the finger on the horns of the altar of burnt-offering, beginning from the east, the rest being poured out, as that of the burnt-offerings.
The two bullocks of the burnt-offerings were hung up and flayed on the uppermost of the three rows of hooks in the court, the rams on the middle, and the lambs on the lowest hooks.
In all no less than 107 priests officiated at the New Moon burnt-offering—20 with every bullock, 11 with every ram, and 8 with every lamb, including, of course, those who carried the appropriate meat- and drink-offerings.
At the offering of these sacrifices the silver trumpets were again blown. All of the special New Moon sacrifices were slain at the north side of the altar, while the peace- and freewill-offerings, which private Israelites were wont at such seasons to bring, were sacrificed at the south side.
To Sum Up
The New Moons
God calls people to come to him and learn of him every seventh day on the weekly Sabbath, he also calls people to come before Him on the New Moons and on various Annual Festivals and Appointed Times.
God calls people to appear before him on the New Moons, on the head of every month; to acknowledge God as Creator of all things and to sanctify the whole month and set it apart to godliness. We are to appear before God to acknowledge Him as our God, King, Head and Sovereign, and to rededicate ourselves to godliness!
The two silver trumpets were sounded in the temple over the special sacrifices offered by the high priest on behalf of the whole people; calling on God to remember His people and to accept the sacrifices offered on behalf of the whole people; as a type of calling on God the Father to accept the sacrifice of Jesus Christ the Lamb of God for all people in future.
The shofar are sounded in every city and town across the land in great rejoicing over the mercy of our mighty LORD in redeeming the people by giving his life for us.
Rejoice with the Shofar on God’s sanctified New Moon Day