The people called Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread, simply Passover; just as today we say, “The Feast of Tabernacles” without mentioning The Feast of the Eighth Day separately; everyone assuming that we all understand that we mean to include the Eighth Day in the phrase Feast of Tabernacles.
Luke 22:1 Now the feast of unleavened bread drew nigh, which is called the Passover.
Two days before the Passover was about to come (Mark 14:1, Mat 26:2), Judas made his pact to betray Christ.
22:2 And the chief priests and scribes sought how they might kill him; for they feared the people. 22:3 Then entered Satan into Judas surnamed Iscariot, being of the number of the twelve. 22:4 And he went his way, and communed with the chief priests and captains, how he might betray him unto them.
22:5 And they were glad, and covenanted to give him money. 22:6 And he promised, and sought opportunity to betray him unto them in the absence of the multitude.
22:7 Then came [the spring festival approached] the day of unleavened bread, when the passover must be killed.
Peter and John were sent to secure a banquet room and sacrifice and prepare the Passover lamb to be eaten at the banquet room.
22:8 And he sent Peter and John, saying, Go and prepare us the passover, that we may eat. 22:9 And they said unto him, Where wilt thou that we prepare? 22:10 And he said unto them, Behold, when ye are entered into the city, there shall a man meet you, bearing a pitcher of water; follow him into the house where he entereth in. 22:11 And ye shall say unto the goodman of the house, The Master saith unto thee, Where is the guestchamber, where I shall eat the passover with my disciples? 22:12 And he shall shew you a large upper room furnished: there make ready [implies doing all things necessary including sacrificing the lamb at the proper time at the temple and then taking it to the building to be cleaned and cooked]. 22:13 And they went, and found as he had said unto them: and they made ready the passover.
The Lamb would have been killed soon after sunset and would have taken several hours to prepare and cook. The meal would have begun perhaps eight or nine at night.
22:14 And when the hour was come, he sat down, and the twelve apostles with him.
Jesus said that he would not eat another Passover until he is resurrected.
22:15 And he said unto them, With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer: 22:16 For I say unto you, I will not any more eat thereof, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God.
The FIRST cup beginning the meal was blessed and divided among the disciples.
In those days there were four cups of Passover wine;
- a FIRST cup of wine opening the meal called the “Cup of Deliverance,“
- a second “Cup of Rejoicing” over deliverance after the plagues were recited,
- to be followed at the end of the meal with Unleavened Bread and the third cup of wine called the “Cup of Redemption,”
- and finally at the end of the service the fourth cup the “Cup of Reconciliation,” picturing the end of the Passover process of reconciliation with God.
Christ opened the meal with the first cup of wine, saying that after this Passover he will not again drink another Passover wine service until he has been killed and resurrected.
22:17And he took the [the first cup of wine opening the service] cup, and gave thanks, and said, Take this, and divide it among yourselves: 22:18 For I say unto you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine [after this Passover, indicating that he was about to die], until the kingdom of God shall come [until he was resurrected and the coming of the kingdom was made sure].
Then, as the meal was ending; Christ handed out the unleavened bread that had always been commanded to be eaten with the Passover. This was nothing new (Ex 12:8), however Jesus explained the spiritual meaning of the broken unleavened bread at this Passover.
Luke 22:19 And he took bread, and gave thanks, and brake it, and gave unto them, saying, This is my body which is given for you: this do in remembrance of me.
Then Luke mentions that another cup of wine [which was actually the third cup, the “Cup of Redemption;”] was then blessed and shared with the unleavened bread at the end of the meal.
22:20 Likewise also the cup after supper [which was the third cup, was taken with the unleavened bread], saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood, which is shed for you.
The four cups of Passover wine were instituted by Ezra under God’s inspiration.
Christ then speaks of betrayal (by Judas). This is covered more thoroughly by the other Gospel writers.
22:21 But, behold, the hand of him that betrayeth me is with me on the table. 22:22 And truly the Son of man goeth, as it was determined: but woe unto that man by whom he is betrayed! 22:23 And they began to enquire among themselves, which of them it was that should do this thing.
Then AFTER the Passover meal was ended and AFTER the unleavened bread was eaten and AFTER the Cup of Redemption was shared; the disciples began once again to argue which one of them would be the greatest or first in the kingdom.
22:24 And there was also a strife among them, which of them should be accounted the greatest.
Jesus knowing what was in their hearts rebuked them and explained that they were called to serve God and humanity, and that they were NOT to be abusive Nicolaitane dominators, but were to serve humbly.
At this point the foot washing takes place as a rebuke to the bickering disciples, and an object lesson of service and humility
John 13:4 He riseth from supper, and laid aside his garments; and took a towel, and girded himself. 13:5 After that he poureth water into a bason, and began to wash the disciples’ feet, and to wipe them with the towel wherewith he was girded.
John 13:12 So after he had washed their feet, and had taken his garments, and was set down again, he said unto them, Know ye what I have done to you?
13:13 Ye call me Master and Lord: and ye say well; for so I am. 13:14 If I then, your Lord and Master, have washed your feet; ye also ought to wash one another’s feet [we are to serve God the Father, Jesus Christ and one another; and NOT covet to be the greatest]. 13:15 For I have given you an example, that ye should do as I have done to you. 13:16 Verily, verily, I say unto you, The servant is not greater than his lord; neither he that is sent greater than he that sent him.
Virtually all the leaders in today’s spiritual Ekklesia, have been doing exactly what Jesus Christ has forbidden and try to play political king of the hill, seeking to exalt themselves; They SHALL BE ABASED and rebuked by Jesus Christ.
Matthew 23:12 And whosoever shall exalt himself shall be abased; and he that shall humble himself shall be exalted.
Only a very few good elders have served God in sincerity and humble fullness of heart to live by every Word of God, and to teach the brethren to do likewise.
Luke 22:25 And he said unto them, The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and they that exercise authority upon them are called benefactors.
22:26 But ye shall not be so: but he that is greatest among you, let him be as the younger; and he that is chief, as he that doth serve.
The servant is NOT greater than his Lord. If Jesus Christ serves God the Father and humanity, and the elders are to serve Christ; the elders should be following the example of Christ and diligently enthusiastically serving God the Father.
22:27 For whether is greater, he that sitteth at meat, or he that serveth? is not he that sitteth at meat? but I am among you as he that serveth.
As the twelve apostles will receive a reward in the kingdom for their loyalty to God the Father; so all those who are loyal and faithful to the whole Word of God, seeking to please God with all their beings will also have eternal life and a good reward!
22:28 Ye are they which have continued with me in my temptations. 22:29 And I appoint unto you a kingdom, as my Father hath appointed unto me; 22:30 That ye may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.
Peter is forewarned of a coming failure of loyalty, so that when it comes he might repent after remembering the warning.
22:31 And the Lord said, Simon, Simon, behold, Satan hath desired to have you, that he may sift you as wheat: 22:32 But I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not: and when thou art converted, strengthen thy brethren. 22:33 And he said unto him, Lord, I am ready to go with thee, both into prison, and to death. 22:34 And he said, I tell thee, Peter, the cock shall not crow this day, before that thou shalt thrice deny that thou knowest me.
Jesus warns that he would be taken and killed later that day
22:35 And he said unto them, When I sent you without purse, and scrip, and shoes, lacked ye any thing? And they said, Nothing. 22:36 Then said he unto them, But now, he that hath a purse, let him take it, and likewise his scrip: and he that hath no sword, let him sell his garment, and buy one. 22:37 For I say unto you, that this that is written must yet be accomplished in me, And he was reckoned among the transgressors: for the things concerning me have an end.
They were to have a sword among them so that they would be counted as rebels and transgressors to fulfill the prophets; even though there was no intent to take the kingdom then or to do any wrong.
22:38 And they said, Lord, behold, here are two swords. And he said unto them, It is enough.
Luke now skips over the last teachings of Christ [recorded by John] and comes to the garden
22:39 And he came out, and went, as he was wont, to the mount of Olives; and his disciples also followed him.
Jesus admonishes his disciples to pray for God’s strength to be steadfast in the trials to come, to pray that they are not tempted to stray. We should all pray the same thing as very many have been and will be tempted to fall away.
22:40 And when he was at the place [in the garden], he said unto them, Pray that ye enter not into temptation.
Jesus prays for deliverance, yet seeking God the Father’s will; and God the Father sends an angel to encourage and strengthen him.
22:41 And he was withdrawn from them about a stone’s cast [maybe 50 or 60 feet], and kneeled down, and prayed, 22:42 Saying, Father, if thou be willing, remove this cup from me: nevertheless not my will, but thine, be done. 22:43 And there appeared an angel unto him from heaven, strengthening him.
Jesus began to sweat great drops of sweat in his agony and intensity. This was not blood, but sweat in large drops dripping from his head to the ground, appearing like large drops.
22:44 And being in an agony he prayed more earnestly: and his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground.
When his prayers were completed, he arose and the enemy came to take him.
22:45 And when he rose up from prayer, and was come to his disciples, he found them sleeping for sorrow, 22:46 And said unto them, Why sleep ye? rise and pray, lest ye enter into temptation. 22:47 And while he yet spake, behold a multitude, and he that was called Judas, one of the twelve, went before them, and drew near unto Jesus to kiss him. 22:48 But Jesus said unto him, Judas, betrayest thou the Son of man with a kiss? 22:49 When they which were about him saw what would follow, they said unto him, Lord, shall we smite with the sword? 22:50 And one of them smote the servant of the high priest, and cut off his right ear.
Jesus said; that is enough violence and healed his enemy.
22:51 And Jesus answered and said, Suffer ye thus far. And he touched his ear, and healed him.
Jesus rebuked the priests who had taken him in the dark, too afraid of the people to take him in the light and in public.
22:52 Then Jesus said unto the chief priests, and captains of the temple, and the elders, which were come to him, Be ye come out, as against a thief, with swords and staves? 22:53 When I was daily with you in the temple, ye stretched forth no hands against me: but this is your hour, and the power of darkness.
Peter denies Christ
22:54 Then took they him, and led him, and brought him into the high priest’s house. And Peter followed afar off. 22:55 And when they had kindled a fire in the midst of the hall, and were set down together, Peter sat down among them. 22:56 But a certain maid beheld him as he sat by the fire, and earnestly looked upon him, and said, This man was also with him. 22:57 And he denied him, saying, Woman, I know him not.
22:58 And after a little while another saw him, and said, Thou art also of them. And Peter said, Man, I am not. 22:59 And about the space of one hour after another confidently affirmed, saying, Of a truth this fellow also was with him: for he is a Galilaean. 22:60 And Peter said, Man, I know not what thou sayest. And immediately, while he yet spake, the cock crew.
Peter remembers the warnings of Christ and was crushed by his failure, repenting bitterly.
When the tribulation falls upon those called out who are rejecting the warnings today; they, like Peter, will be humbled and their pride will be crushed by the reality that has struck them down. Then many will repent in sincerity and wholeheartedness just like Peter did, and as Saul/Paul would later do.
Very many who are arrogant and prideful today, rejecting the Word of God for their own false traditions, out of a misguided equating of loyalty to tradition as loyalty to God; will be devastated in spirit when they realize that they were not rich and increased with spiritual goods, needing nothing, as they had thought (Rev 3:16). . . .
Many will sincerely repent and rise up to do mighty works in the tribulation, just as Peter and Saul did when their minds were opened.
22:61 And the Lord turned, and looked upon Peter. And Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how he had said unto him, Before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice. 22:62 And Peter went out, and wept bitterly.
22:63 And the men that held Jesus mocked him, and smote him. 22:64 And when they had blindfolded him, they struck him on the face, and asked him, saying, Prophesy, who is it that smote thee? 22:65 And many other things blasphemously spake they against him.
22:66 And as soon as it was day [light], the elders of the people and the chief priests and the scribes came together, and led him into their council, saying, 22:67 Art thou the Christ? tell us. And he said unto them, If I tell you, ye will not believe: 22:68 And if I also ask you [to let me be], ye will not answer me, nor let me go.
Jesus says that he shall sit with God the Father on God’s throne as the Son of God.
22:69 Hereafter shall the Son of man sit on the right hand of the power of God. 22:70 Then said they all, Art thou then the Son of God? And he said unto them, Ye say that I am.
The priest’s, eager to have an accusation, then declared that Jesus had blasphemed by making himself the Son of God the Father.
22:71 And they said, What need we any further witness? for we ourselves have heard of his own mouth.