Laws to protect property from theft
Exodus 22:1 If a man shall steal an ox, or a sheep, and kill it, or sell it; he shall restore five oxen for an ox, and four sheep for a sheep.
Despite the law against murder, Biblically we have the right to defend our homes with lethal force if broken into during the night. However we must use good judgment and this right is not always respected by the law of the land in today’s world.
This law was made as a law for a whole nation in physical Israel. Today spiritual Israel is only scattered individuals and while it is lawful by God’s Word to defend with lethal force against a night time intruder; all things that are lawful are not always expedient, and today you can get into a world of trouble for doing so. Focus on prevention and secondarily on non lethal force to protect your home.
22:2 If a thief be found breaking up, and be smitten that he die, there shall no blood be shed for him.
However even in the Mosaic Covenant time, any killing of a thief in the daylight is forbidden. A thief must make full restitution for his theft and damage, and if he cannot restore because of personal poverty, he must be sold to work up to six years for his damage and theft.
22:3 If the sun be risen upon him, there shall be blood shed for him; for he should make full restitution; if he have nothing, then he shall be sold for his theft.
If the stolen things be found with the thief, then he must restore double.
22:4 If the theft be certainly found in his hand alive, whether it be ox, or ass, or sheep; he shall restore double.
Concerning restoring a harvest.
22:5 If a man shall cause a field or vineyard to be eaten, and shall put in his beast, and [it] shall feed in another man’s field; of the best of his own field, and of the best of his own vineyard, shall he make restitution.
22:6 If fire break out, and catch in thorns, so that the stacks of corn [grain], or the standing corn [grain], or the field, be consumed therewith; he that kindled the fire shall surely make restitution.
Things in safe keeping with others.
22:7 If a man shall deliver unto his neighbour money or stuff to keep, and it be stolen out of the man’s house; if the thief be found, let him pay double. 22:8 If the thief be not found, then the master of the house shall be brought unto the judges, to see whether he have put his hand unto his neighbour’s goods.
If any such matter cannot be resolved privately then it should be brought before the legal judges.
22:9 For all manner of trespass, whether it be for ox, for ass, for sheep, for raiment, or for any manner of lost thing which another challengeth to be his, the cause of both parties shall come before the judges; and whom the judges shall condemn, he shall pay double unto his neighbour.
Restitution of a lost animal.
22:10 If a man deliver unto his neighbour an ass, or an ox, or a sheep, or any beast, to keep; and it die, or be hurt, or driven away, no man seeing it: 22:11 Then shall an oath of the LORD be between them both, that he hath not put his hand unto his neighbour’s goods; and the owner of it shall accept thereof, and he shall not make it good.
The entrusted person must restore that which was stolen from him to the owner.
22:12 And if it be stolen from him, he shall make restitution unto the owner thereof.
If an animal is torn by wild beasts, [or die on its own] no restitution is required because this is a natural peril.
22:13 If it be torn in pieces, then let him bring it for witness, and he shall not make good that which was torn.
Borrowed animals and things lost by the borrower must be restored by the borrower.
22:14 And if a man borrow ought of his neighbour, and it be hurt, or die, the owner thereof being not with it, he shall surely make it good.
If a person is working for the owner using the owners tools; than the user is not responsible for the tools because they remain in the owners control.
22:15 But if the owner thereof be with it, he shall not make it good: if it be an hired thing, it came for his hire.
Fornication is to be controlled by the command that the fornicators marry if they were indeed lovers; however this has a safety exit in that the father may refuse the marriage if the man is a scoundrel but the man must still pay the normal dowry which would have been substantial.
It appears that the dowry price was 50 shekels of silver as stated in Deuteronomy 22:28-29, or about two years unskilled wages.
22:16 And if a man entice a maid that is not betrothed, and lie with her, he shall surely endow her to be his wife. 22:17 If her father utterly refuse to give her unto him, he shall pay money according to the dowry of virgins.
The sin of witchcraft is any rebellion against the keeping of any part of the Word of God.
1 Samuel 15:23 For rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft, and stubbornness is as iniquity and idolatry. Because thou hast rejected the word of the Lord, he hath also rejected thee from being king.
Exodus 22:18 Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live.
Lying with a beast is equivalent to becoming one flesh with it and totally degrades the image of God into the image of the brute beast.
22:19 Whosoever lieth with a beast shall surely be put to death.
Serving any god other than the Eternal is spiritual adultery and idolatry, this includes obeying some minister or priest contrary to the Word of God.
A prime example of this is cooking or paying others to cook [patronizing restaurants or having catered meals] on God’s holy weekly and annual Sabbath days, which sin is rebellion against the Word of God and is the same as witchcraft.
22:20 He that sacrificeth unto any god, save unto the LORD only, he shall be utterly destroyed.
We are not to afflict any person
22:21 Thou shalt neither vex a stranger, nor oppress him: for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
22:22 Ye shall not afflict any widow, or fatherless child. 22:23 If thou afflict them in any wise, and they cry at all unto me, I will surely hear their cry; 22:24 And my wrath shall wax hot, and I will kill you with the sword; and your wives shall be widows, and your children fatherless.
22:25 If thou lend money to any of my people that is poor by thee, thou shalt not be to him as an usurer, neither shalt thou lay upon him usury.
22:26 If thou at all take thy neighbour’s raiment to pledge, thou shalt deliver it unto him by that the sun goeth down: 22:27 For that is his covering only, it is his raiment for his skin: wherein shall he sleep? and it shall come to pass, when he crieth unto me, that I will hear; for I am gracious.
22:28 Thou shalt not revile the gods [Elohim; rulers], nor curse the ruler of thy people.
God is to be respected and all authorities among the people are to be respected and obeyed in the Lord.
22:29 Thou shalt not delay to offer the first of thy ripe fruits, and of thy liquors: the firstborn of thy sons shalt thou give unto me. 22:30 Likewise shalt thou do with thine oxen, and with thy sheep: seven days it shall be with his dam; on the eighth day thou shalt give it me.
The eighth day pictures a new beginning and the first born of man and beast are to be presented to the Eternal and all human males are to be circumcised on the eighth day.
22:31 And ye shall be holy men unto me: neither shall ye eat any flesh that is torn of beasts in the field; ye shall cast it to the dogs.
We are not to willfully speak falsely and if we are found to be in error we are to correct ourselves.
Exodus 23:1 Thou shalt not raise a false report: put not thine hand with the wicked to be an unrighteous witness. 23:2 Thou shalt not follow a multitude to do evil; neither shalt thou speak in a cause to decline after many to wrest judgment: 23:3 Neither shalt thou countenance a poor man in his cause.
We are to be faithful to God and to the truth; we are NOT to follow a crowd to turn aside from the truth. We are NOT to wrest judgment for either the rich or the poor. Godly righteous judgment must be given without regard for riches and position, and without pity for a wicked man who is poor.
23:4 If thou meet thine enemy’s ox or his ass going astray, thou shalt surely bring it back to him again.
If you find a stray ox, means in principle; that if you find anything belonging to another, you must return it to its rightful owner.
23:5 If thou see the ass of him that hateth thee lying under his burden, and wouldest forbear to help him, thou shalt surely help with him.
We are to help even the animals of our enemies.
23:6 Thou shalt not wrest the judgment of thy poor in his cause.
We should not pity the poor so as to wrest his judgment and account a wicked man not guilty based on sympathy.
Our judgment is to be just and we should never justify the wicked or condemn the righteous.
We are to never take any bribe to pervert justice.
23:8 And thou shalt take no gift: for the gift blindeth the wise, and perverteth the words of the righteous.
Do not oppress the foreigner and always be hospitable to him.
23:9 Also thou shalt not oppress a stranger: for ye know the heart of a stranger, seeing ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.
The seventh year is to be a Sabbath of rest from regular labors.
23:10 And six years thou shalt sow thy land, and shalt gather in the fruits thereof: 23:11 But the seventh year thou shalt let it rest and lie still; that the poor of thy people may eat: and what they leave the beasts of the field shall eat. In like manner thou shalt deal with thy vineyard, and with thy oliveyard.
23:12 Six days thou shalt do thy work, and on the seventh day thou shalt rest: that thine ox and thine ass may rest, and the son of thy handmaid, and the stranger, may be refreshed.
Be always totally unshakably faithful to the Eternal and do not let the false gods and idols of the wicked be even mentioned except to warn against them.
23:13 And in all things that I have said unto you be circumspect: and make no mention of the name of other gods, neither let it be heard out of thy mouth.
We are to appear before God in the three harvest seasons:
- For Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread,
- When the grain harvest is concluded at Pentecost, and
- When the main fall harvest comes at the Feast of Tabernacles.
These are the three specifically mentioned times when an offering is required because of the bounty of the harvests. No offering is required by God on the Memorial of Trumpets, the Fast of Atonement, and the Feast of the Eighth Day.
A congregation may be asked for an offering on these other scripturally unmentioned days, but one is NOT REQUIRED by God and should be totally voluntary. If anyone tells you that an offering is required by God on any other Festival or Appointed Time; they are lying, and I would not give God’s money to liars.
23:14 Three times thou shalt keep a feast unto me in the year.
23:15 Thou shalt keep the feast of unleavened bread: (thou shalt eat unleavened bread seven days, as I commanded thee, in the time appointed of the month Abib; for in it thou camest out from Egypt: and none shall appear before me empty:) 23:16 And the feast of harvest, the firstfruits of thy labours [Pentecost], which thou hast sown in the field: and the feast of ingathering [Tabernacles], which is in the end of the year, when thou hast gathered in thy labours out of the field.
These are the three pilgrim feasts when all the males and as many of their family members as possible are to travel to the place that God dwells. In those days God placed his name in the tabernacle and later in the temple, but right now God dwells in each of those individual people who are faithful to Him.
23:17 Three times in the year all thy males shall appear before the LORD God.
Physical sacrifices may not be made with any leaven which represents sin; because the physical sacrifices represent the sinless Christ the spiritual Lamb of God.
23:18 Thou shalt not offer the blood of my sacrifice with leavened bread; neither shall the fat of my sacrifice remain until the morning.
The first born of beasts belong to God; the firstborn human males also belong to God and are to be redeemed, because God spared the first born of Israel in Egypt by later giving up his own first born to be sacrificed in our place. The first fruits of the harvest also belong to God.
Simmering a kid in its own mother’s milk was a local pagan fertility rite. This does not forbid the eating of meat with milk as some Rabbins suppose. Abraham ate milk, butter and meat with God and the angels:
23:20 Behold, I send an Angel [Messenger] before thee, to keep thee in the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared.
Do NOT provoke the Spirit of God by polluting his commanded Sabbaths and exalting and obeying men contrary to the Word of God.
23:21 Beware of him, and obey his voice, provoke him not; for he will not pardon your transgressions: for my name is in him. 23:22 But if thou shalt indeed obey his voice, and do all that I speak; then I will be an enemy unto thine enemies, and an adversary unto thine adversaries.
Those who are full of passionate love for our espoused Husband and obey his voice will surely be beloved of him. Let the beloved of the LORD rejoice in all adversity, for they are with their Beloved and He is with them!
The Canaanites were a physical type of unrepentant sin and they are given over to destruction as an example that the unrepentant sinner will be totally destroyed in the second death.
23:23 For mine Angel shall go before thee, and bring thee in unto the Amorites, and the Hittites, and the Perizzites, and the Canaanites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites: and I will cut them off.
We are not to bow before any god but the Eternal, that includes making idols of men and corporate church organizations. Godly men can be a help to focus us on the Eternal, but they are NEVER to replace the Eternal as a supposed moral authority above the whole Word of God.
23:24 Thou shalt not bow down to their gods, nor serve them, nor do after their works: but thou shalt utterly overthrow them, and quite break down their images.
If physical Israel would faithfully serve God they would be greatly blessed; and spiritually if we faithfully serve God we would be greatly blessed in spiritual things and will inherit God’s gift of eternal life in the spirit.
In the same way that God went before physical Israel and gave them physical victories when they were faithful; Almighty God will go before his New Covenant faithful who live by every Word of God in the letter and the spirit, and give them victory over Satan, sin and death.
23:25 And ye shall serve the LORD your God, and he shall bless thy bread, and thy water; and I will take sickness away from the midst of thee. 23:26 There shall nothing cast their young, nor be barren, in thy land: the number of thy days I will fulfil.
23:27 I will send my fear before thee, and will destroy all the people to whom thou shalt come, and I will make all thine enemies turn their backs unto thee. [and flee] 23:28 And I will send hornets before thee, which shall drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite, from before thee.
23:29 I will not drive them out from before thee in one year; lest the land become desolate, and the beast of the field multiply against thee. 23:30 By little and little I will drive them out from before thee, until thou be increased, and inherit the land.
The promised ultimate border of Israel is from the Red Sea to the Euphrates. This border was achieved by David and Solomon, and is a type of the millennial border of Israel.
23:31 And I will set thy bounds from the Red sea even unto the sea of the Philistines, and from the desert [of Egypt] unto the river: [Euphrates] for I will deliver the inhabitants of the land into your hand; and thou shalt drive them out before thee.
Today New Covenant spiritual Israel is to make no agreement with false teachers. We are to have nothing to do with them except to condemn their sin.
23:32 Thou shalt make no covenant with them, nor with their gods. 23:33 They shall not dwell in thy land, lest they make thee sin against me: for if thou serve their gods, it will surely be a snare unto thee.
Moses is called to approach God
Exodus 24:1 And he said unto Moses, Come up unto the LORD, thou, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel; and worship ye afar off.
The seventy elders with Aaron and his sons were told to worship God at a certain distance while Moses approached God.
24:2 And Moses alone shall come near the LORD: but they shall not come nigh; neither shall the people go up with him.
When Moses returned he told the people all the statutes and judgments that God had given them. This is called the Book of the Covenant, which book contained the words that God spoke to the people in Genesis 20 and the words that God dictated to Moses as recorded in Genesis 20:22-23:32.
24:3 And Moses came and told the people all the words of the LORD, and all the judgments: and all the people answered with one voice, and said, All the words which the LORD hath said will we do. 24:4 And Moses wrote all the words of the LORD, and rose up early in the morning, and builded an altar under the hill, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel.
Moses made sacrifices to confirm the Covenant.
24:5 And he sent young men of the children of Israel, which offered burnt offerings, and sacrificed peace offerings of oxen unto the LORD. 24:6 And Moses took half of the blood, and put it in basons; and half of the blood he sprinkled on the altar.
Moses read the Book of the Covenant to the people and the people committed themselves to a Marriage Covenant with Christ their Deliverer.
24:7 And he took the book of the covenant, and read in the audience of the people: and they said, All that the LORD hath said will we do, and be obedient.
24:8 And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said, Behold the blood of the covenant, which the LORD hath made with you concerning all these words.
The blood of the physical sacrifice, symbolizing the blood of Christ shed for the New Covenant Called Out Bride; was then sprinkled on the people of the Mosaic Covenant physical bride of Christ.
The marriage of physical Israel at Pentecost was symbolic of the ultimate calling out of all humanity who will then also commit to live by every Word of God in a New Covenant. The Holy Spirit will then be poured out on a repentant humanity to begin the Millennial Kingdom of God, on a future Feast of First Fruits [Pentecost] (Joel 2:28).
We have been deceived into thinking that only those in the first mass resurrection to spirit are the first fruits; when all who live during the millennium are also a part of the first fruits, because the seventh day is still a part of the overall week!
It is only AFTER the millennium that the main harvest is reaped. The first six thousand years pictures the spiritually Called Out of the New Covenant struggling to overcome, while the millennial rest pictures the resurrected chosen bringing in the remaining first fruits of the last day of the week of Unleavened Bread.
Then the elders went up before God and stopped a short way from the mount.
24:9 Then went up Moses, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel: 24:10 And they saw the God of Israel: and there was under his feet as it were a paved work of a sapphire stone, and as it were the body of heaven [the sky] in his clearness.
24:11 And upon the nobles of the children of Israel he [God did not destroy them for coming close] laid not his hand: also they saw God, and did eat and drink.
They saw God, the one who became the Son and NOT God the Father; and lived.
Moses is called up to God in the mount after reading the Book of the Covenant to the people; this time to receive the tables of stone.
24:12 And the LORD said unto Moses, Come up to me into the mount, and be there: and I will give thee tables of stone, and a law, and commandments which I have written; that thou mayest teach them.
Here we see Joshua going with Moses; this begins to show the background of Joshua and his training under Moses which helped him to be so faithful to God in conquering the land and leading the people to be faithful to God like Moses did.
God had carefully prepared Joshua for his responsibility in succeeding Moses as the physical leader of Israel.
24:13 And Moses rose up, and his minister [assistant] Joshua: and Moses went up into the mount of God.
Moses went up the mount again while Aaron, his sons and the seventy remained below.
24:14 And he said unto the elders, Tarry ye here for us, until we come again unto you: and, behold, Aaron and Hur are with you: if any man have any matters to do, let him come unto them.
Moses went up the mount only to wait for six days for God to speak to him. Then on the seventh day God spoke to Moses.
24:15 And Moses went up into the mount, and a cloud covered the mount. 24:16 And the glory of the LORD abode upon mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six days: and the seventh day he called unto Moses out of the midst of the cloud.
The people in the plain below the mount saw a very bright light, like a huge fire or the sun itself burning on the mountain.
24:17 And the sight of the glory of the LORD was like devouring fire on the top of the mount in the eyes of the children of Israel.
Moses was up on the mount in the presence of God for forty days and nights, sustained by the power and glory of God. During those forty days God gave Moses the two tablets of stone on which the ten commandments were written and Moses wrote out a much more extensive book of the Word of God as dictated by God including the commandments, laws, statutes, precepts, judgments and the instructions for the tabernacle, and very probably including the book of Genesis.
24:18 And Moses went into the midst of the cloud, and gat him up into the mount: and Moses was in the mount forty days and forty nights.
First God spoke to the people, then Moses approached God and wrote a Book of the Covenant containing Exodus 20 to Exodus 23:32. Then in Exodus 24 Moses goes up on the mount to receive the two tablets of stone and to write out many more words that God dictated to him.