The Daniel 9:1 to 9:23 covers the first 69 weeks of the Seventy Weeks Prophecy accurately predicting the first coming of Jesus Christ; hundreds of years before it happened!
Then the Daniel 9:24 Seventieth Week of the Prophecy provides vital information concerning the Latter Days and the Return of Christ, which will be covered in Part 2.
Dating the Ministry of Jesus Christ!
Building the Temple
The deportations from Babylon began with the children of certain nobles including Daniel at about the age of 17, being taken to Babylon in 604 B.C. Then in 597 B.C. there was a major forced deportation from Jerusalem, this was followed by another deportation in 586 B.C. when Nebuchadnezzar put down the rebellion of Zedekiah.
The city Jerusalem and temple were demolished and the deportation of the middle and upper class to Babylon [leaving the farmers to till the land] took place in 586 B.C.
The completion of the seventy years pronounced on Jerusalem through Jeremiah ended in 516 B.C.; seventy years after the city and temple were destroyed in 586 B.C. the temple would again be completed.
Now consider the actual prophecy: In Jeremiah 29:10, God had promised, “After seventy years be accomplished at Babylon I will visit you, and perform my good word toward you, in causing you to return to this place” and Isaiah records that God had appointed Cyrus for this task. Isaiah 44:28 “That saith of Cyrus, He is my shepherd, and shall perform all my pleasure: even saying to Jerusalem, Thou shalt be built; and to the temple, Thy foundation shall be laid.”
Daniel recognizing that the 70 years pronounced on Jerusalem and specifically to the temple was nearing completion and seeing that construction on the temple had been suspended, fasted and prayed for the city in 522 B.C.
Daniel fasted and prayed [522 B.C.] that the temple and city would be rebuilt and the prophecy of Jeremiah would be fulfilled.
Daniel 9:1 In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes, which was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans;
9:2 In the first year of his reign (522 B.C.) I Daniel understood by books the number of the years, whereof the word of the LORD came to Jeremiah the prophet, that he would accomplish seventy years in the desolations of Jerusalem.
The Fasting Prayer of Repentance by Daniel
There is a reason why this prayer of repentance is recorded for us: This is an example of the kind of sincere repentance prayer that God accepts from his people. Please spend some time in carefully thinking about what a proper repentant attitude is, in the eyes of God.
9:3 And I set my face unto the Lord God, to seek by prayer and supplications, with fasting, and sackcloth, and ashes:
9:4 And I prayed unto the LORD my God, and made my confession, and said, O Lord, the great and dreadful God, keeping the covenant and mercy to them that love him, and to them that keep his commandments;
9:5 We have sinned, and have committed iniquity, and have done wickedly, and have rebelled, even by departing from thy precepts and from thy judgments:
9:6 Neither have we hearkened unto thy servants the prophets, which spake in thy name to our kings, our princes, and our fathers, and to all the people of the land.
9:7 O LORD, righteousness belongeth unto thee, but unto us confusion of faces, as at this day; to the men of Judah, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and unto all Israel, that are near, and that are far off, through all the countries whither thou hast driven them, because of their trespass that they have trespassed against thee.
9:8 O Lord, to us belongeth confusion of face, to our kings, to our princes, and to our fathers, because we have sinned against thee.
9:9 To the Lord our God belong mercies and forgivenesses, though we have rebelled against him; 9:10 Neither have we obeyed the voice of the LORD our God, to walk in his laws, which he set before us by his servants the prophets.
9:11 Yea, all Israel have transgressed thy law, even by departing, that they might not obey thy voice; therefore the curse is poured upon us, and the oath that is written in the law of Moses the servant of God, because we have sinned against him.
9:12 And he hath confirmed his words, which he spake against us, and against our judges that judged us, by bringing upon us a great evil: for under the whole heaven hath not been done as hath been done upon Jerusalem.
9:13 As it is written in the law of Moses, all this evil is come upon us: yet made we not our prayer before the LORD our God, that we might turn from our iniquities, and understand thy truth.
9:14 Therefore hath the LORD watched upon the evil, and brought it upon us: for the LORD our God is righteous in all his works which he doeth: for we obeyed not his voice.
9:15 And now, O Lord our God, that hast brought thy people forth out of the land of Egypt with a mighty hand, and hast gotten thee renown, as at this day; we have sinned, we have done wickedly.
9:16 O LORD, according to all thy righteousness, I beseech thee, let thine anger and thy fury be turned away from thy city Jerusalem, thy holy mountain: because for our sins, and for the iniquities of our fathers, Jerusalem and thy people are become a reproach to all that are about us.
9:17 Now therefore, O our God, hear the prayer of thy servant, and his supplications, and cause thy face to shine upon thy sanctuary that is desolate, for the Lord’s sake.
9:18 O my God, incline thine ear, and hear; open thine eyes, and behold our desolations, and the city which is called by thy name: for we do not present our supplications before thee for our righteousnesses, but for thy great mercies.
9:19 O Lord, hear; O Lord, forgive; O Lord, hearken and do; defer not, for thine own sake, O my God: for thy city and thy people are called by thy name. Gabriel is sent to Daniel with the prophetic words of encouragement.
9:20 And whiles I was speaking, and praying, and confessing my sin and the sin of my people Israel, and presenting my supplication before the LORD my God for the holy mountain of my God; 9:21 Yea, whiles I was speaking in prayer, even the man Gabriel, whom I had seen in the vision at the beginning, being caused to fly swiftly, touched me about the time of the evening oblation.
9:22 And he informed me, and talked with me, and said, O Daniel, I am now come forth to give thee skill and understanding.
All understanding of spiritual things comes from God. Gabriel was sent the moment that Daniel began his prayer of repentance and supplication for himself, for the temple, for Judah/Israel and for Jerusalem.
9:23 At the beginning of thy supplications the commandment came forth, and I am come to shew thee; for thou art greatly beloved: therefore understand the matter, and consider the vision.
A Prophecy to rebuild the city and the appearance of Messiah is given
Please note that this prophecy was given long after the decree to build the temple by Cyrus (536 B.C.) and speaks of a yet, at that time still future, decree to build the city. The actual decree to build the city Jerusalem was given to Ezra by Ahaseurus the husband of Esther in 457 B.C.
9:24 Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most Holy. 9:25 Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem [the city, NOT the temple] unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks (49 days, which is 49 years at a day for a year Ezekiel 4), and three score and two weeks (a total of 434 years): the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times.
There is ample proof that this command to BUILD THE CITY was issued in the seventh year of the reign of Artaxerxes Longimanus, in 457 B.C.
It was during the 49 year period from 457 B.C. when the original decree was given to build the city, and the city was then built under extremely trying circumstances, being completed as the angel had foretold to Daniel in 49 years in 408 B.C. After which another 62 weeks (434 years) would pass before the revealing of the Christ.
Download our book “From Abram to Jesus” explaining the history of events right up to the ministry of Christ.
The dating of this decree marks the starting point of the entire prophecy concerning the coming physical ministry of Christ and is of vital importance in understanding the prophecy about the date of the death of Christ.
The Four Different Decrees
- The decree of Cyrus recorded in Ezra 1:1-4
In Jeremiah 29:10, God had promised, “After seventy years be accomplished at Babylon I will visit you, and perform my good word toward you, in causing you to return to this place.”
Ezra 1:1 “Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, that the word of the Lord by the mouth of Jeremiah might be fulfilled, the Lord stirred up the spirit of Cyrus, king of Persia, that he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom….”
The royal decree went forth in the year 536 B.C., at which time nearly 50,000 Jews returned to their homeland.
Two centuries earlier, God had appointed Cyrus for this task: Isaiah 44:28 “That saith of Cyrus, He is my shepherd, and shall perform all my pleasure: even saying to Jerusalem, Thou shalt be built; and to the temple, Thy foundation shall be laid.”
Ezra recorded the decree of Cyrus as an historical record.
Recognizing in Isaiah’s prophecy a personal directive, Cyrus began his decree with these words, Ezra 1:2 “The Lord God of heaven hath given me all the kingdoms of the earth; and he hath charged me to build him an house at Jerusalem, which is in Judah.”
Cyrus continued, “Who is there among you of all his people? his God be with him, and let him go up to Jerusalem, which is in Judah, and build the house of the Lord God of Israel, (he is the God,) which is in Jerusalem.” Ezra 1:3.
This first decree authorized the Jews to return to Jerusalem and rebuild the temple. Ezra chapter 3 tells us that those who returned to Judea gathered in Jerusalem to observe the feast of tabernacles in the seventh month, and the following spring, “in the second month,” they “set forward the work of the house of the Lord” (verses 1, 4, 8).
After the foundation of the temple had been laid, “the adversaries of Judah and Benjamin,” “the people of the land,” being prohibited from participating in the project, “weakened the hands of the people of Judah, and troubled them in building, and hired counsellors against them, to frustrate their purpose, all the days of Cyrus king of Persia, even until the reign of Darius king of Persia.” Ezra 4:1-5.
“Then ceased the work of the house of God which is at Jerusalem. So it ceased unto the second year of the reign of Darius king of Persia.” Ezra 4:24.
There was no more construction after the Altar had been built and the foundation laid.
Then, the adversaries came and asked the workers, “Who hath commanded you to build this house?” Ezra 5:3. They replied, “In the first year of Cyrus the king of Babylon the same king Cyrus made a decree to build this house of God.” Ezra 5:13.
So the Persian governor of the province of Judea who was over Zerubbabel wrote a letter to King Darius I, saying, “If it seem good to the king, let there be search made in the king’s treasure house, which is there at Babylon, whether it be so, that a decree was made of Cyrus the king to build this house of God at Jerusalem, and let the king send his pleasure to us concerning this matter.” Ezra 5:17.
- The decree of Darius I recorded in Ezra 6:1-12
At the request of Zerubbabel the Persian governor sent a letter to Darius and a search was made, and Cyrus’ original decree was found.
Darius then issued his own decree reinforcing the original decree of Cyrus, saying, “Let the governor of the Jews and the elders of the Jews build this house of God in his place.” Darius instructed his governor to supply the Jews with money or whatever else they needed, that “the building of this house of God . . . be not hindered.” (Ezra 6:7, 8).
Based on Ezra 4:24, this decree was issued in 520 B.C., the second year of the solo reign of Darius. With the hinderances now removed, the temple was completed in the sixth solo year of Darius (516 B.C.) on the third day of the twelfth month, and in the following month they kept the Passover (Ezra 6:15, 19).
- The decree of Artaxerxes I [Ahaseurus Longimanus, Esther’s husband] recorded in Ezra 7:12-26
King Artaxerxes Longimanus, during the seventh year of his reign (457 B.C.), authorized Ezra the priest and scribe, and all who wished to join him, to go to Jerusalem to restore the religion and build the city.
Artaxerxes granted him large amounts of silver and gold to furnish the temple, and gave instruction that his treasurers on that side of the river should provide whatever was needed to beautify the Lord’s house, revive the religion and build the city.
In the decree, Artaxerxes Longimanus commanded Ezra to “set magistrates and judges, which may judge all the people that are beyond the river, all such as know the laws of thy God; and teach ye them that know them not. And whosoever will not do the law of thy God, and the law of the king, let judgment be executed speedily upon him, whether it be unto death, or to banishment, or to confiscation of goods, or to imprisonment.” (Ezra 7:25, 26).
- The second decree of Artaxerxes Longimanus [Esther’s husband] mentioned in Nehemiah chapters 1 and 2
The story of Nehemiah begins in the 20th year of Artaxerxes Longimanus’ reign. Nehemiah, a Jew, was the king’s cupbearer [wine steward]. One day some of his brethren from Judah arrived in Shushan where king’s palace was. Nehemiah inquired of them about the condition of things in Jerusalem.
“The remnant that are left of the captivity there in the province are in great affliction and reproach,” they replied. “The wall of Jerusalem also is broken down, and the gates thereof are burned with fire.”
Nehemiah sat down and wept. For several days he mourned and fasted and prayed. His prayer is remarkably similar to that of Daniel in Daniel 9. He prayed that somehow God would “grant him mercy in the sight of” the king.
Four months later, Nehemiah was serving wine to the king, and Artaxerxes noticed a sadness on Nehemiah’s countenance. “Why is thy countenance sad?” the king asked.
Nehemiah explained that Jerusalem was still in ruins, the wall and the gates were still not repaired. When the king asked what he would like to do, Nehemiah answered, “If it please the king, and if thy servant have found favour in thy sight, that thou wouldest send me unto Judah, unto the city of my fathers’ sepulchres, that I may build it.” [Build the city walls of Jerusalem]
Artaxerxes Longimanus consented, and sent with him letters for the governors of the region, authorizing the rebuilding project. This commission confirming the original decree and authorizing the work to be renewed was issued in the spring of 444 B.C., in Artaxerxes’ 20th year of reign.
Evaluating the four decrees
Daniel 9:25 “Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem [the city, not the temple] unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times.”
This is an important verse to understand. It is the only prophecy in the Bible which tells us precisely when the Messiah would arrive. It is extremely vital therefore to know exactly when that time period began.
The event to mark the beginning of the seventy weeks is stated to be “the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem.” But to which “commandment” does it refer? We have just seen that there were four different decrees, all of which seem quite similar. If we use the wrong starting point, the whole prophecy will be off.
As always, it is essential to pay close attention to the words of the text. We are looking for a command to “restore and to build Jerusalem.” The decree of Cyrus, recorded in Ezra 1, gave instruction only for the rebuilding of the temple in Jerusalem. It said nothing about restoring the whole city.
The decree of Darius, recorded in Ezra 6, was simply his endorsement of the decree of Cyrus. It mentioned only the building of the “house of God.”
But in the decree of Artaxerxes Longimanus, recorded in Ezra 7, provision is made for the complete restoration of the Jewish state, including the right to appoint magistrates and judges, hold trials, and pass and execute sentence upon violators of their own national laws.
This was clearly understood to be an authorization for the full reestablishment of Jerusalem and the Jewish nation; for shortly after this the enemies of the Jews wrote to the king complaining that “the Jews which came up from thee to us are come unto Jerusalem, building the rebellious and the bad city, and have set up the walls thereof, and joined the foundations” Ezra 4:12. That the walls had been completely set up was obviously an exaggeration, as verse 13 reveals. Yet this incident shows that for the first time there was actual work being done to rebuild the city. This had not been the case under the previous decrees.
The fourth decree (Nehemiah 2), the wording of which has not been preserved, was simply a reinstatement of Artaxerxes’ original authorization, this time naming Nehemiah to take charge of the project.
Considering all the options, the decree which most correctly answers to the specifications of Daniel 9:25 was the decree of Artaxerxes to Ezra, recorded in Ezra chapter 7.
We should therefore date the beginning of the 70 week prophecy of Daniel 9 from that command of Artaxerxes made in 457 B.C.
It was during the 49 year period from 457 B.C. when the original decree was given to build the city that the city was built under extremely trying circumstances, being completed as the angel had foretold to Daniel in 49 years in 408 B.C. After which another 62 weeks (434 years) would pass before the revealing of the Christ.
The decree to restore and build Jerusalem was issued in the seventh year of Artaxerxes’ reign (Ezra 7:7, 8).
Ezra left Babylon on the first day of the first month [about April] in 457 B.C. arriving on the first day of the fifth month [approximately August] after which the command of Artaxerxes was then officially read out, to all the people (Ezra 7).
Therefore, the prophecy of Daniel 9 began, with the command to build the city, in summer 457 B.C.
The Work of Messiah the Christ
Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to FINISH TRANSGRESSION, and to make an END OF SINS, and to make RECONCILIATION FOR INIQUITY, and to BRING IN EVERLASTING RIGHTEOUSNESS, and to SEAL UP THE VISION AND PROPHESY, and to ANOINT THE MOST HOLY.
Notice that it is at THE END of the full Seventy Weeks that reconciliation for iniquity, the anointing of the Most Holy and an end to sin and bringing in everlasting righteousness will occur.
When Jesus Christ was on the earth the first time, these things happened only in part. Reconciliation was offered to only a very few. Transgressions have not yet been finished, nor has sin been ended.
Therefore it is when he comes the second time that he will be Anointed King over all the earth and put an end to all wickedness.
The Building of the Temple Timeline
- The people went up to Jerusalem with Zerubbabel to build the temple according to the decree of Cyrus in 536 B.C.
- Cyrus appointed Sheshbazzar [the Persian name for Zerubbabel] governor of the Jews in Jerusalem and Judea, (Ezra 5:16) under the Persian governor Tatnai.
- Zerubbabel and Joshua went with the people out of Babylon to Jerusalem under the governor and they build the Altar in time to sacrifice during the Feasts of the seventh month.
- Construction of the temple foundation began in the second year, Ezra 3.
- Little progress was made due to the opposition of the local people and lack of support
- Then Haggai and Zechariah began to prophesy and encourage the people and construction resumed
- Then construction was halted by Artaxerxes [Darius] in 522 B.C. due to complaints from the local people [which came during a period of uprisings in the empire], Ezra 5.
- Then Daniel fasted and prayed for Jerusalem and the Daniel 9 prophecy was given.
- Then the Persian governor Tatnai wrote to Darius explaining that Cyrus had ordered the construction of the temple.
- After seeing God’s deliverance of Daniel from the lions (Dan 6) Darius then ordered the construction to resume in 520 B.C. and the temple was completed in 516 B.C. fulfilling the Jeremiah prophecy precisely (Ezra 6).
Ezra Nehemiah Timeline
Restoring true religion and building the city
- Artaxerxes [Ahaseurus Longimanus] put away queen Vashti in his second year (461 B.C.) for her terrible example of rebellion and disobedience.
- He became the husband of Esther in his third year (c 460 B.C.)
- In his seventh year (457 B.C.) king Artaxerxes [Ahasuerus Longimanus], disposed to hold the Jews in favor due to the influence of queen Esther and Mordachi, sent Ezra to rebuild the city Jerusalem.
- Ezra as the high priest was sent to restore the religion and build the city in 457 B.C., Ezra 7
- In Ezra 9, Ezra learns of the marriages to unconverted spouses and idolatry among the people and separates them calling them to repentance in Ezra 10.
- Ezra concentrates on restoring true religion but does not build the walls.
- In the twelfth year (452 B.C.) of king Artaxerxes [Ahasuerus Longimanus], the Jews were saved from Haman who was incensed by the favours granted to the Jews and conspired to destroy them.
- In 444 B.C. Nehemiah was appointed governor and is sent to help Ezra the high priest, and as the governor he begins construction of the city walls to protect the city, Nehemiah 3-8, leaving Ezra to fulfill his religious function of teaching the people and restoring true religion as the high priest.
- Nehemiah as Terhasha [governor of the Jews] and the high priest Ezra read the book of the law before all the people at the Fall Festivals, Nehemiah 9
- On the second day after the Feast of the Eighth Day they held a day of fasting and repentance Nehemiah 10, and many people recommitted themselves to the Covenant, Nehemiah 11
- Ezra died in 440 B.C.
- After 12 years as governor, during which he ruled with justice and righteousness, Nehemiah returned to visit king Ahaseurus at Susa in 432 B.C.
- After some time he returned to Jerusalem and was horrified to find that the people had fallen back into their evil ways. Unconverted people were permitted to conduct business with Jews inside Jerusalem on the Sabbath and the Jews did business with them. Greatly angered, he purified the temple and the priests and Levites and again separates them from their unconverted spouses and decries their sins of idolatry and Sabbath breaking, Nehemiah 13.
- The city was completed in 408 B.C.
It was during the 49 year period from 457 B.C. when the original decree was given to build the city, that the city was built under extremely trying circumstances, being completed as the angel had foretold to Daniel in 49 years in 408 B.C. After which another 62 weeks (434 years) would pass before the revealing of the Jesus Christ when his ministry began at the age of 30 in autumn 27 A.D.
The city of Jerusalem was built over seven weeks (49 years) (Dan 9:25).
It was during the 49 year period from 457 B.C. when the original decree was given to build the city, that the city was built under extremely trying circumstances, being completed as the angel had foretold to Daniel in 49 years in 408 B.C. After which another 62 weeks (434 years) would pass before the revealing of Messiah the Christ.
And sixty-two weeks (434 years) after the city was built, Messiah was to appear (Dan 9:25).
And AFTER [the] three score and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for Himself (Dan 9:26).
We know that the entire ministry of Jesus Christ; from the time that he began [in the autumn of 27 A.D.] until his crucifixion at Passover was 3 1/2 years.
We see that: beginning with the decree to build the city, until the Messiah appears Verse 25 there shall be 7+62=69 weeks, or 483 days and at a day for a year, this is 483 years.
Let us then do the math and we will see when Messiah would appear. -457 B.C. + 483 years = 26 A.D.. Now add one for the lack of a zero between AD and BC and:
We come to the appearance of Messiah in autumn 27 A.D.! Which is absolutely consistent with Luke 3!
Christ was then to be “Cut Off” some time AFTER the 483 years but it does not say how long after. That information can be learned by determining the years of the ministry of Christ.
From here we can determine the date of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ the Messiah. Knowing that he was baptized in the early spring near Passover [beginning his ministry in the autumn]; and that from his ministry beginning in the autumn of 27 A.D. there were four Passovers, with His death coming on the last [fourth] Passover; we see that he died on Passover in 31 A.D.
In 31 A.D., Passover, according to the Biblical Mosaic Calendar in use in Judea at that time; which relied upon the first light of the new moon to start the month; was Wednesday April 25th!
The modern Rabbinic Calendar places Passover on a Monday in 31 A.D. however that Rabbinic Calendar was not finalized until 1178 A.D. and was not in use until centuries later in 1178 A.D.
This is confirmed in the scriptures [Luke 3] which say that Christ’s ministry began in the 15th year that Tiberius FIRST ascended the throne 12 A.D. + 15 = 27 A.D.!
See New Moon dates: Passover Date
The Birth Year of Jesus Christ
The birth of Christ is generally dated through certain comments of Josephus about the death of Herod the Great. Josephus writes that after an eclipse Herod slaughtered certain Jews, then he went to the Dead Sea for a cure of his ailments and then observed Passover in Jerusalem before dying.
A theory is that the lunar eclipse of September 15 of 5 B.C. was the lunar eclipse preceding the death of Herod. That eclipse occurred 7 lunar months before the Passover of 4 B.C.
Thus the eclipse either occurred in the month of Elul or in the month of Tishri, but with the addition of the month of Adar II before the Nisan of 4 B.C.
Josephus clearly describes Herod’s eclipse as occurring after the removal from office of the high priest—the same high priest whom Josephus describes as still being in office on the fast day of Tishri 10. Neither could Herod’s eclipse have occurred in Tishri, for at that time there would have been huge crowds gathered for the Feast of Tabernacles. These crowds would not have permitted such an offense [as the slaughter of many leading Jews], nor would Herod have dared to outrage them and risk a riot or rebellion. Therefore, 4 B.C. cannot be the year of Herod’s death”.
- The only date for Herod’s death, fulfilling all the criteria presented by Josephus would have been 1 B.C.
- There is nothing in the Bible to indicate that the Family spent two years in Egypt. It is only said that children of two years and younger were killed. Herod was a thorough man and would have certainly doubled the age [to make sure] as indicated by the men of the East. Even then the killing could have taken some time and after that more time would have to pass before Herod died. The amount of time spent in Egypt is unknown, but may have been more or less than two precise years.
- The ministry of Messiah began when he was about 30 years old. We are told that this ministry began in the 15th year of Tiberius, Luke 3. Tiberius became co-ruler with Augustus in 12 AD and sole ruler after the death of Augustus in 14 A.D.
Fifteen years after the co ruler-ship from 12 A.D., would be 27 A.D. for the beginning of the ministry of Christ when he was coming to the age of 30 years, with his birth being in 4 B.C. [adding a year to compensate for no year zero]. This would put the birth of Christ in autumn 4 B.C.; which would fit with the death of Herod after Passover in 1 B.C. From fall 4 BC to spring 1 B.C. being about 2 1/2 years. Time enough for the birth, the period of separation and the traveling to and stay in Egypt. This date would put the Sacrifice of Christ at Passover on Wednesday in 31 A.D.
A Friday Passover? If the count is made from the death of Augustus and the sole ruler-ship of Tiberius in 14 AD, then Christ would have become about 30 in 29 A.D.: 14 A.D. + 15 = 29 A.D.; and that would have required the birth of Christ in the year 1 B.C., which would be out of sync with the death of Herod in 1 BC. It would also be contrary to the 70 Weeks Prophecy which puts the appearance of Christ in 27 A.D. This error taught by many would wrongly put the Sacrifice of Christ on a Friday Passover in 33 A.D.
Conclusion: The birth of Christ was in 4 B.C.; His ministry began in the 15th year that Tiberius FIRST ascended the throne 12 A.D. + 15 = 27 A.D.; and Christ died on Passover 31 A.D.
The Beginning of the Ministry of Jesus Christ and the Passover of His Death
Daniel 9:25 Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks (49 days, which is 49 years at a day for a year, Ezekiel 4), and three score and two weeks (434 years): the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times.
There is ample proof that this command was made in the seventh year of the reign of Artaxerxes 1 Longimanus, in 457 BC.
The city Jerusalem was built in seven weeks [49 years[ (Dan 9:25). And AFTER another 62 [434 years] weeks Messiah was to begin his ministry and then would later be cut off.
After three score and two weeks Messiah would be cut off [killed], but not for Himself (Dan 9:26).
How long AFTER the 62 weeks would he be cut off? It does not say in this prophecy, but we know that the entire ministry of Jesus Christ; from the time that He began until His crucifixion was 3 1/2 years.
We can see that beginning with the decree [457 B.C.] to build the city, until the Messiah appeared Verse 25; there shall be 7+62=69 weeks, or 483 days and at a day for a year, this is 483 years.
Let us then do the math and see when Messiah would appear. –457 B.C. + 483 years = 26 A.D. Now add one for the lack of a zero between A.D. and B.C. and we come to the appearance of Messiah in 27 A.D.
From here we can determine the date of the birth of Christ by subtracting 30 [Christ being 30 years old in 27 A.D.] from 27 A.D. adjusting for no year zero and we get 4 B.C.
We can also determine the date of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ the Messiah.
Knowing that he was baptized in the early spring of 27 A.D., and that His ministry began in the autumn of 27 A.D. and covered four Passovers, with His death on the last [fourth] Passover; we can conclude that he died on Passover Wednesday in 31 A.D.
Therefore the Passover of 31 A.D. fell on a Wednesday by the Mosaic Calendar in use at that time; while today’s Rabbinic Calendar was not finalized until 1178 A.D!
The crucifixion of Jesus Christ was on Wednesday, NOT ON FRIDAY!